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Status and role

Each of the positions of the actors interacting in a specific scene is referred to as a status, which is shown as a positional relationship by being compared with the coordinates in space. American cultural anthropologist Linton ( 1893-1953) divides his status into the ascribed status and an acquired status.
The attributional status is a status based on the status inherited in society and is attributed to an individual at the time of birth or a certain age. This includes gender, age, parents and children, brothers and sisters, etc.
On the other hand, the acquired position is a position that is built up by individual efforts and competitions, and it corresponds to a job position obtained through the efforts of the individual. It takes some talent, knowledge and skills to occupy it. Many professionals and freelance professionals (lawyers, doctors, athletes, etc.) in modern society can be considered to have acquired positions based on their motivated achievement motives. And, the behavioural patterns that are given to the positions assigned by these societies and groups, expected to interact with other actors, obliged, and learned are called roles.
The role is a concept that gives concreteness to the position and grasps the dynamic functional aspect corresponding to the position.

Expecting a person who has a role to perform a specific action is called role expectations.

To adapt to a specific interaction situation, a behavioural phenomenon suitable for one’s position is properly learned, and a learning phenomenon that puts it into action according to one’s membership is called role-taking. It is at an intermediate stage between role perception and role enactment, and the actor takes concretely the society into himself and further devises his way of realizing it. He is involved in the issues of ego formation and independence.

A conflict due to contradictory expectations that arises between multiple roles that a person has at the same time, which is difficult for the person who plays the role to process independently, is called a role conflict. For example, this can happen to a married female worker who is at the mercy of home and work or a marginal man who struggles between two different societies.

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20 social survival rules

1. Learn the skills well, and learn the skill of being a good person, if you have a gun in hand, you are not afraid of anything!

  2. Learn to adapt to the environment, you can’t change, and you don’t have the skill to subvert the rules of the world!

  3. Without fought unprepared battles, life can not be tossed.

  4. Be a low-key person and a high -key person. You are not a saint. You will say the wrong thing and you will do the wrong thing.

  5. Do not rely on the force if you can solve it with wisdom.

  6. The society will always be full of variables, live in peace, and have a sense of crisis.

  7. Don’t be impulsive, choices made under any impulse are often extremely stupid.

  8. Learn to make small money first, don’t think of eating fat as a bite.

  9, do not let a failure to completely destroy your self-confidence heart, you know forever is not the blow.

  10. Open the road every time the mountain crosses the bridge when seeing water.

  11. Don’t say too absolute words, say too much death, leave yourself a line of livelihood, a retreat.

  12. Don’t skimp on the language you praise, the world loves to listen to good words.

  13. Don’t block other people’s way of wealth.

  14. Don’t offend the villain, remember, never.

  15. Endure for a while, calm and calm, take a step back to the sea and the sky.

  16. Respect others and start with punctuality.

  17. Don’t inquire into the privacy of others, knowing too much is not good for you.

  18. Remember to eat meat first, but not even soup.

  19. Being confused is also a kind of wisdom.

  20. There is no free lunch in the world. Never take shortcuts!

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Law of social survival: the order of doing things is very important

1. The villain first, then the gentleman.

An old saying: Ugliness comes to the fore.

To be a human being, first, talk about the gains and losses first, and then talk about friendship.

Especially before cooperating with people, it involves money and other interest issues, you must first be a villain and then a gentleman, and explain the distribution of benefits first.

May wish to conclude a written agreement.

If the other party is a gentleman, this does not increase his responsibility;

If the other party is a villain, he will avoid the risks first, lest he is fooled.

2. Make “bad” first, then make “good”.

When a person obtains and loses something of the same value, the pain of loss is ten times or even dozens of times stronger than the happiness of being obtained.

The boss made a confusion at the end of the year: “This year’s benefits are not good, and the red envelopes will not be issued much.” He was worried because of fear of affecting morale.

A friend quietly gave him an idea.

So, he spread the news in the company through finance: “This year’s benefits are not good, cancel the year-end award.”

As soon as the news came out, the whole company was sad.

On the 23rd day of the twelfth lunar month, when the company had a group dinner, the boss suddenly released good news during the meal:

“Despite the poor results this year, considering the hard work of everyone, the company decided to send two thousand red envelopes each.”

At the scene, there was immediate applause. The two thousand yuan red envelope has won the hearts of the people.

A love veteran asked the girl to meet in a special way:

First put forward suggestions that she can’t accept, then put forward suggestions that she can accept, the success rate is quite high.

The average person said: Girl, invite you to dinner on Saturday night. The other party said something wrong, sorry, refused.

For the veteran, let ’s start by saying: Girl, let ’s go to Thailand to play together on Sunday. I invite you. Girl: Ah? Work again on Monday! The veteran said: That’s not going, please have dinner on Saturday. The girl said: OK.

3. Seek common ground first, then seek differences.

Many people live in their own world, and when communicating with others, they must first melt that layer of ice.

“Heart” first agreed, and “reason” only went in.

Seek common ground first, then seek differences, and communicate effectively without quarrelling.

4. Complete first, then perfect.

When implementing things, customer service perfectionism first.

Fear of being poorly done will be criticized by others, and you will not be willing to start or delay in doing things.

First, come out the preliminary results, and then go to perfect; step by step, the first complete, report first, then go to perfect, then more reliable.

5. Communicate first, then make love.

There are boundaries between people, and there are also dimensions and scales.

In interpersonal communication, one should avoid talking with others and the other should avoid preconceptions and subjective impressions.

Therefore, when you are not close to others and the relationship is not harmonious, do n’t express your thoughts at once. You can first understand each other through daily communication and see if the other person ’s ideas are consistent with your own. Propose ideas sexually.

6. Stand first, then stand high

How can people “get up” as soon as possible without a platform?

How can an ordinary person make himself as fast as possible?

Standing first and then standing high is the correct order and strategy.

When you start to do it, you will defeat 50% of the people who wait and see; when you stand firm again, you will defeat 70% of the people; then you will gradually go higher.

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Basic Business Manners: Grooming and Greetings

Business basics for newcomers

1. See who’s good manners

In basic business training, you will learn proper grooming, greetings, and appropriate language as a member of society. By considering who is “fit”, the actions required as a member of society will be accompanied. This “opposite point of view” is the most basic and most important way of thinking in business.
First of all, think about “befitting appearances” that are visually easy to understand, and check each other’s appearances in pairs. It is a work that allows you to check whether your own criteria match the criteria of the other person and work where you can feel the “suitability” of the other person’s eyes.

2. The keywords of “dressing” are “cleanliness”, “moderate”, and “common sense”

Being clean is different from making others feel “clean.” No matter how clean the hair is shampooed, if it is unclean, it will cause discomfort to the other person. Similarly, there are many things to look out for, such as wrinkled shirts, slacks with folds, and overfilled suit pockets. Also, for understatement, be careful with brand logos that are too large, hairdressing agents that are too tight, and perfumes.
The text also explains Cool Biz with illustrations. Even with Cool Biz, the three points of “cleanliness,” “modest,” and “common sense” do not change. Be careful of exposing the skin around your neck and feet.

3. Greetings are the basics of working people

Courtesy is essential for good relationships. In particular, greetings are an indispensable courtesy at work.
Just knowing the importance of greetings doesn’t mean you’re done. Make sure to check not only words but also facial expressions for a pleasant greeting.

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Is it possible to be infected with a novel coronavirus infection through food?

The main routes of transmission of new coronavirus infection are considered to be droplet infection and contact infection. As of April 1, 2020, there have been no cases reported to have been infected with a novel coronavirus infection through food (including vegetables and fruits that are eaten raw and fresh seafood).
In addition, when serving food or meals, you may come into contact with an unspecified number of people, so be careful of contact infections (*). The same applies to tableware, so please be careful including clean handling.
* Contact infection is one of the main routes of infection for new coronavirus infections.
Coronavirus has been found to be vulnerable to heat (above 70 ° C for a certain period of time) and alcohol (above 70%, commercially available alcohol for hand disinfection). At each stage of manufacturing, distribution, cooking, sales, and catering, we carry out regular food poisoning prevention such as physical condition management of food handlers, frequent hand washing, hand disinfection with alcohol for hand disinfection, cough etiquette, etc. If general hygiene is in place, don’t worry. As a general caution from WHO, “Avoid consumption of raw or undercooked animal meat and meat products, and be careful when handling and cooking them.”

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How is the new coronavirus infection transmitted?

At present, there are two possibilities: droplet infection (Hitotsukansen) and contact infection.
(1) Droplet infection The virus is released together with the droplets (sneezing, coughing, brim, etc.) of the infected person and another person inhales the virus through the mouth or nose to become infected.
* Scenes to be aware of infection: When spending a certain amount of time indoors, etc. when the distance between each other cannot be secured sufficiently
(2) Contact infection After the infected person holds his / her sneezing and coughing, he/she turns around by himself/herself. If you touch the item, the virus of the infected person will be attached. When an uninfected person comes into contact with the part, the infected person’s virus attaches to the uninfected person’s hand and becomes infected without directly contacting the infected person.
* Examples of infected areas: straps for trains and buses, doorknobs, handrails for escalators, switches, etc.

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Is it true that the new coronavirus is derived from bats?

In recent years, two types of coronaviruses, which are considered to be of animal origin, have occurred and infected humans and became prevalent. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)” that occurred in 2002 and “Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)” that have occurred since 2012. Although no definitive evidence that the new coronavirus is of animal origin has been found, it is possible that the bat was the origin of this new coronavirus because its gene sequence is close to the SARS-like coronavirus derived from bats. Is being considered.

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What kind of virus is “Coronavirus”?

So far, seven kinds of “coronaviruses” that infect humans have been found, and one of them is the so-called “new coronavirus (SARS-CoV2)” that has been a problem since last December. Of these, four types of viruses account for 10 to 15% (35% during the epidemic) of common cold causes, and many are mild. The remaining two viruses are “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)” that occurred in 2002 and “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)” that has occurred since 2012. Coronaviruses can infect all animals, but rarely infect other animals of different species. It is also known to lose its infectivity by alcohol disinfection (70%).

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Plant Food Toxins in an Evolutionary Context — George Diggs, Ph.D. (AHS14)

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10 ways to boost your immune system against the novel coronavirus COVID-19